COVID-19 Recovery: Building Future Pandemic Preparedness and Understanding Citizen
Engagement in the USA and UK. The British Academy.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been felt especially keenly in disadvantaged communities, demonstrating what social epidemiologists call a social gradient in outcomes. Social gradients have been observed across the range of outcomes, from infections to deaths, and since vaccines for COVID-19 became available, we have seen a social gradient in their uptake, which risks further entrenching health inequalities.