The aspiration and efforts of Republican China to establish the country as an independent, prosperous and powerful national collapsed under the storm of colonial aggression from Japan. The aggressor was defeated, but the rule of Republican China ended, following a civil war, with the coming to power of the victorious Chinese Communist Party in 1949. The remnants of the Nationalist Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan. The next 40 years proved to be ones of successive and disruptive ideological and political shifts. The purpose of this chapter is to consider the impact of Maoist ideology on education in China during this period, and to indicate some important commentaries through a reader’s guide.