The aim of the ESF Leavers’ Surveys is to assist in assessing the effectiveness of the ESF Convergence and Competitiveness Programmes in Wales. To date, separate reports based upon analysis of the 2009 and 2010 surveys have been published. Taken together, the combined programme of research has contributed to a step shift change in our understanding of the experiences of leavers from ESF funded projects. The collection of career history data via telephone surveys represented an important methodological innovation that provided a longitudinal view of the labour market circumstances of participants following the completion of ESF projects. Ensuring that the design of the surveys carefully aligned to other sources of labour market data has enabled the use of counterfactual impact evaluation techniques to be applied to UK data in this area. These methods have only previously been applied in the context of administrative data, such as the recent DWP led evaluation of ESF projects (Ainswoth and Marlow, 2011)1.