Grundfragen und Trends, 2 | 2022, pp 34-37

The 20th century saw the catastrophes of the First and Second World Wars. International intellectual cooperation was considered necessary if humanity were to renew civilized society and build a prosperous economy to the benefit of all. Such exchange also became an instrument of ideological “soft-power” or cultural diplomacy, using propaganda, and exploiting the arts, sciences, and intellectual life generally. Here we consider examples of idealism and realism in international intellectual cooperation and educational exchange. The aim is to identify and make coherent key issues and suggest lessons for today.