This research report was designed in collaboration between the author and colleagues from Volunteer Scotland, the Wales Council for Voluntary Action, the Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations, the National Council for Voluntary Organisations, and the Welsh Government. The research was funded by the UK Household Longitudinal Study and the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD) as part of the Social Action as a Route to the Ballot Box project. The content of the report, and any errors in the analysis, are solely the responsibility of the author.