Journal of Rural Studies. Volume 95. pp 1-14.

There is a longstanding policy interest in understanding the impacts of changes in access to public and private services in rural areas. To date much of the empirical analysis concerning changing patterns of accessibility has been predicated on assumptions regarding the mode of transport used to access such facilities. The availability of new and open sources of data, and the increasing sophistication of spatial analytical tools, has enabled alternative transportation modes to be included when investigating the impact of service changes. In this study a nationwide analysis of changes in public transport provision and bank closures has enabled the identification of those parts of Wales that were disproportionally impacted by the loss of financial services during the early years of the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on local scenarios which show the combined impact of such changes, the findings demonstrate how temporal variations in accessibility can be used to examine potential patterns of exclusion that arise from the loss of key services. We conclude by suggesting that any assessment of changes in accessibility needs a holistic approach that considers changes in the transport infrastructure alongside other facets of service provision to understand the full impact of such closures on rural communities.