European Journal of East Asian Studies. Volume 22(3), pp.193-228.

Mae'r cynnwys hwn ar gael yn Saesneg yn unig.

This pan-regional analysis of non-governmental organisations’ ( NGO ) perspectives on the contemporary factors which constrain or repress civil society in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ( ASEAN ) is based on United Nations’ Universal Periodic Review ( UPR ) data. It shows that, paradoxically, whilst the majority of ASEAN states have ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ( ICCPR ) that upholds civil society’s political role in promoting rights and democracy, this is inimical to the region’s political elites who regard civil society’s primary function as non-political delivery of social welfare and development. This disjuncture results in repression, performativity, and legitimation. The UPR data reveal an ever-shrinking civil space. Civil society, including human rights defenders ( HRD s), faces a raft of rights pathologies, including threats, violence and murder—as well as increasing state restrictions on freedom of association and expression. This is compounded by impunity for offenders, corruption, and government inaction following earlier UPR recommendations.